CYGAŃSCY MUZYCY W EUROPIE – SZKIC HISTORYCZNY
The article begins by explaining the origins of Gypsies with an emphasis on the linguistic and anthropological theories tracing Indian decadency of Gypsies. Drawing from historical documents as well as poetry and other sources, the authors presents the association of Gypsies with music. The aritcle offers an explanation why Gypsies were often engaged in music making for money and linked with medieval travelling troupes performing entertainment shows. The article also highlights the origins of stereotypes associated with Gypsies. The author pays special attention to the forming of the image of a Hungarian Gypsy claiming that the widely spread vision of a Gypsy musician is stereotypically associated with Gypsy musicians from Habsburg Monarchy, playing in so-called Zigeunerkapellen. In addition, the musical traditions of Spanish Gypsies are presented, since the author believes that the Gypsy-musician stereotype is closely linked with the fate of Gypsies in Europe.