Angel Singing and Angel Horns in Old Believers’ Images of the Last Judgement
The purpose of this paper is to describe the musical concept of angel singing and the iconography of angel horns in the culture of Russian Old Believers in the 19th century. From the mid-17th century, the Old Believers rejected the new customs of the Muscovite official Church, including musical traditions, and accepted only vocal music. Musical instruments in Old Russian and Old Believer art depicted on icons and miniatures were based primarily on Byzantine models. Further examples can be given from the Book of the Apocalypse and on eschatological icons, which show angels playing the horn. The article discusses items from a 19th century Apocalypse from the collection of the National Library in Warsaw and icons from the National Museum in Warsaw. Angels with horns announce the approaching of the Last Judgement. These images are symbolic in meaning and do not refer to musical practices.